Monday, May 25, 2009

Algae,400 kilograms of biomass per hectare per day,Fuel price to soar ,unstable price tag.

Current G8 meeting indicated that Fuel price will again soar as the economy picks up,it is estimated to rise above $150 /barrel. When in economic depression today, there has been increasing biofuel developments worldwide but more than 13 % are reported bankrupt due to intense economic problem.But more importantly lowered fuel price (fossil) below $50 dollars cannot compete with high biofuel operational cost.Currently, it seems more private companies and groups are emerging to invest and develop biofuels.With increasing cars of over 4 billion cars using fuel, emitting million of CO2 per year and depleting fossil fuel plus global climate change there is totally confident that fossil fuel must be reduced.In this scanario,biofuels developments have survived their hardest test, now that fossil fuel price will rise again, biofuel is cheered worldwide to competitively meet the demand.

Biofuel will be manufactured and traded worldwide-this is the future tomorrow.However, since it canbe manufactured it leaves gap and invite independent investors and developers to cater for their internal fuel demand or other regions.

Current technologies and development are making operational cost lower and making the product cheaper,affordable and competitive with the fossil fuel price tag. Algae is one of which has in the recent year increased from pond nuisance to bloom fuel for cars, food for animals, man as well as other goods derived and processed.

The PetroAlgae believes it is the closest company to commercialization of micro crops as a biofuel, will complete its microcrop demonstration farm in Florida this year and will commence booking revenues from technology licenses this year.

The company said that it is in discussions with customers in China, India, Japan, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Germany, the UK., Singapore, Finland and the U.S. In March, the company announced that GTB Power had signed to use or sublicense PetroAlgae technology to construct and operate ten facilities in the China, Taiwan, and the Japanese island of Yonaguni.

Chairman John Scott said in a statement to shareholders that “PetroAlgae’s business model is designed to generate revenues from licensing its technology (production systems, micro-crop strains, process controls, etc.) to those with the capital and market know-how to become high-volume producers. We consider our model to be the lowest-risk path to market-strength in what can be a high-risk, emerging industry. We are selling the tools that will allow producers to operate with maximum efficiency in a price-sensitive, competitive environment.”

The company has refocused its position around a broader group of micro-crops — including macroalgae, microalgae, diatoms, micro-angiosperms, and cyanobacteria that can be harvested daily, making maximum use of land, water and energy, and requiring water, nutrients, carbon dioxide and sunlight, and non-arable land.

“We select the best microorganism for each specific location, indigenous to the region,” said Scott, “and then apply our distinct proprietary processes to scale from a microorganism to a high output-producing micro-crop.”

The company revealed that it is generating 40 grams per square meter per day production levels - equivalent to 400 kilograms of biomass per hectare per day, and that the company’s process can now convert carbohydrate content as well as lipids into fuel.

“PetroAlgae differentiates itself by adding physics into the mix,” said Scott. “All microcrops love sunlight. Managing the detail of how each microcrop gets the right sunlight, that’s the real secret sauce in this industry. We increase production output further with scientific and engineering expertise related to nutrition, bioreactor development and the hydrodynamics of mixing. Our proprietary processes for micro-crops result in double the growth compared to other producers.”

However, the company also confirmed that it has reconfigured its biomass-to-fuel strategy. Typical processes focus on extracting micro-algae from water, then extracting oil from the resultant algae paste, with leftover protein then destined for the animal feed market.

PetroAlgae is now using a curding process to separate the protein from the water, oils and carbohydrates, resulting in a highly concentrated animal feed that the company believes will have as high a value, per ton of overall biomass, as the oils and carbs that are converted to fuel. The high-protein content will be of particular interest to cattle ranchers feeding young animals to increase the animal growth rate.

The company said that it has developed and successfully tested the resulting gooey algae “mash”, containing oils and carbs, that can be refined from the mash in a normal refinery that produces “a spectrum of distillates that is weighted towards the diesel side of the refinery,” according to Scott. The result? A renewable, drop-in “green diesel”.

The company confirmed that it has tested the fuel production with prospective licensing partners who are refiners that can utilize the fuel in their own downstream distribution, and that the initial licensees for the company will be refineries.

Scott said that the company will not reach a 100 Mgy fuel production rate by the end of next year with its licensees; however, licensees will be able to generate algae within a few months of commencing a project, as the PetroAlgae model involves the construction of open ponds on a modular basis, so that the first ponds can be productive while others continue to be built out in its 12,500 acre model. The company re-confirmed that it will create 1200 jobs per 12,500 acre project.

The company also announced that it will open an office in Washington, DC with a staff of three to concentrate on bringing regulatory, lobbying and PR capabilities to the Company.

Thursday, May 21, 2009

Biofuel News world over. Fuel Price will soar!

In Venezuela, a recent energy forum in Caracas discussed various oil price equilibrium scenarios. According to the presenters, Saudi Arabia has targeted $60-$70 per barrel, while Venezuela and Iran are targeting $70-$80. Presenters noted that investment bankers are calculating that the price will average $50-$60 through early 2011 and then begin to rise towards $100-$110.

In 3-5 years ,the % of biofuel in your car tank will have 5-7% biofuel blended with fossil fuel. Ten years from or less more than 15% blended is expected while beyond into the future will see modified vehicles who will run entirely on biofuels.
The whole world has come to a point in time when fossil fuel must need company to increase supply.Also more pressure is now on decreasing fossil fuel and lifting more biofuel with worldwide climate change.Some of our land and land will be given away for biofuel generation which is necessary.

In Canada, Enerkem announced that Enerkem GreenField Alberta Biofuels has been granted North America's first unconditional commercial permit ever awarded to produce 10 Mgy of advanced biofuels from sorted municipal solid waste.
In Illinois, Archer Daniels Midland said that it expects the US ethanol market to grow 14 percent, from 10.5 billion gallons to 12 billion, in 2010. ADM also said that while it would continue to look at ethanol acquisitions, any plant would have to be a "great fit at a great price" according to Reuters.

The Enerkem technology utilizes diverse feedstocks, including sorted municipal solid waste, construction and demolition wood, treated wood and forest residues. The technology is complementary to recycling and composting since it uses only the end-waste that would otherwise be land-filled, and it converts it to liquid fuel. Enerkem produces synthetic diesel, synthetic gasoline and dimethyl ether, as well as green chemicals.

Most importantly, Enerkem's gasification process requires minimal additional energy or water, and the water that is required is reused in a closed circuit. With certain feedstocks, the process is even a net producer of quality water. Materials are not burned during the process so there are no emissions of furans and dioxins.

In New York, Sunoco announced that its $8.5 million bid for the 100 Mgy Northeast Biofuels ethanol plant in Volney was approved by the U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Northern District of New York. The announced acquisition, at 8.5 cents per gallon of fuel capacity, is the lowest price yet seen for ethanol capacity.

In Denmark, protein-separation specialist Upfront Chromatography announced the launch of Rhobust EBA, a protein isolation platform that enables mining for food grade proteins from biofuels. The new process enables the upgrade of proteins in biomass to food-grades of even higher value than the existing protein base, which typically is used for animal feed or other lower-value uses such as co-firing for power generation.

In China, Cathay Forest Products announced that it will acquire Guizhou-based biodiesel producer Eco-Energy China for $2.54 million. Cathay Forest manages 2.5 million acres of CHinese and Russian forest, and said that its expertise in forestry will assist in the management of Eco-Energy's 100,000 acre jatropha plantation. Eco-Energy also owns a biodiesel processing plant.
Among other countries, China has purchased 6.9 million acres in the Democratic Republic of the Congo for an oil palm plantation and is seeking 4.94 million acres in Zambia for a jatropha plantation. British and other European interests have also been actively acquiring freehold and leases in Angola, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Nigeria and Tanzania.

The total is estimated by BusinessWeek at a total of as much as 50 million acres at a cost of up to $40 billion.

Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva arrived for a three-day state visit that will focus on cooperation in biofuel development. Lula said that he hoped to promote sugarcane ethanol exports, and technology sales; China is experiencing a shortage of cane, but high import taxes have been a barrier to equipment sales.While in Brazil, Braskem announced a $268 million loan commitment from the Brazilian state development bank (BNDES) to produce polyethylene from ethanol. The company will commit an investment of $380 million to the project, which will be located in Triunfo and commence operations in late 2010.

In South Africa, the US Chamber of Commerce and Baird's DMC released a survey of attitudes toward African investment. US investment in Africa has lagged significantly behind Europe and China in bioenergy. Primarily, execs pointed to a "difficult business case", while corruption and political uncertainty were also cited. One respondent saying "In Africa, it's like playing Russian roulette".

EU forms algae group, plans first conference
The European Algae Biomass Association is planning its first, organizational conference June 3 to 4 in Florence, Italy. Peter Vis, member of the Cabinet of European Commissioner for Energy Andris Piebalgs in charge of Renewable Energy Sources, will be the keynote speaker at EABA's inaugural conference. Panel sessions featuring European researchers and industry spokesmen will cover the current status and perspectives for algae development, technical and legal challenges, investment, greenhouse gas balance and sustainability implications.

In Florida, PetroAlgae said that it believes it is now the closest company to commercialization of micro crops as a biofuel, will complete its microcrop demonstration farm in Florida this year and will commence booking revenues from technology licenses this year.
In Arizona, Desert Sweet Biofuels will conduct a conference in Phoenix this Friday to introduce what it describes as a breakthrough in the production of algae. Desert Sweet CEO Rick Thompson said "We are using a combination of gasification and pyrolysis in such a way as to produce biochar (when added to the soil sequesters CO2); another byproduct is electricity."

The company revealed that it is generating 40 grams per square meter per day production levels - equivalent to 4000 kilograms of biomass per hectare per day. Based on a 30 percent oil content, this would be the equivalent of 11,500 gallons of oil or biodiesel per acre per year, more than double its previous guidance.

However, the company also confirmed that it has reconfigured its biomass-to-fuel strategy. PetroAlgae is now using a curding process to separate the protein from the water, oils and carbohydrates, resulting in a highly concentrated animal feed that the company believes will have as high a value, per ton of overall biomass, as the oils and carbs that are converted to fuel. The high-protein content will be of particular interest to cattle ranchers feeding young animals to increase the animal growth rate.

The company said that it has developed and successfully tested the resulting gooey algae "mash", containing oils and carbs, that can be refined from the mash in a normal refinery that produces "a spectrum of distillates that is weighted towards the diesel side of the refinery," according to Scott. The result? A renewable, drop-in "green diesel".

In Australia, National Biodiesel announced its plan to construct a $243 million biodiesel at Port Kembla that will be able to supply most of the 5 percent biodiesel mandate imposed by the state of New South Wales commencing in 2011.An eight planned liquified natural gas projects worth $50 billion in investment in south eastern Queensland have prompted environmental concerns over massive quantities of toxic, salty water. Recycled water from the early stage of the project is feeding a trial biofuels crop.

In Zimbabwe, Science and Technology Development Minister Heneri Dzinotyiwei called for an increase in cotton and jatropha production for biodiesel. Current production is limited at the Mt. Hampden biodiesel facility to 1.9 Mgy, compared to a 6.7 Mgy capacity due to the feedstock shortage.

In Germany, Verbio said that its biodiesel production has fallen from 93,907 in the first quarter of 2009 to 78,866 tonnes in Q1 2009, compared to a production capacity of 112,000 tonnes per quarter. The company said that high feedstock prices and falling prices for fossil diesel have combined with rising German taxes on biodiesel to nearly kill off demand for biodiesel in Germany.

In India, state-owned Indian Oil Corporation has established a partnership with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for a pilot project to produce cellulosic ethanol from agricultural and wood wastes. IOC will invest $4 million in the pilot effort, while NREL has also signed with the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy to develop second-generation biofuels and new technologies for first generation biofuels.

Research break through-Cellulosic bioethanol.
he breakthrough relates to consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) - a transformational concept which the DOE/USDA 2006 Roadmap called "the ultimate low-cost configuration for cellulose hydrolysis and fermentation," and which reduces or eliminates the need for added enzymes to process pretreated lignocellulose into ethanol.

The goal of CBP is to combine the enzyme production, cellulose hydrolysis, and fermentation of the C5 and C6 sugars in one consolidated process.

With this announcement, Mascoma has developed a proof of concept consolidated bioprocessor. It is thought to be the biggest R&D-driven advance yet achieved in the cellulosic biofuels field.

Martin Keller, Director of the BioEnergy Science Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, called it a "significant breakthrough" and added "proofing consolidated bioprocessing is a major achievement towards a sustainable biofuels industry. This major milestone of achievement brings us so much closer to show that we can develop technology to achieve this goal. This also demonstrate the potential next generation biological research has to our energy security and also justifies the increased research funding in this area."

In Belgium, the European Bioethanol Fuel Association is reporting that EU ethanol production in 2008 was an estimated 2.8 billion liters, up from 1.8 billion liters the previous year. This represents an increase of 56%. Most of the increase is due to the growth in French production, which almost doubled to 1 billion liters in 2008 (up from 539 million liters in 2007).

Wednesday, May 13, 2009

Wood BriquettesCoals: An alternative beside Kerosene and firewood- can be produced for PNG need.

Briquette coal-efficient for cooking.

Most of the people in PNG live in the rural areas. Fuel for cooking and daily use comes from organic matter example firewood is widely used for energy requiring processes such as cooking ,warming,etc..However, in the cities and towns ,firewood source is scarce, the few who sell firewood are rural dwellers and is also expensive!
As population increased and more people want/need firewood for energy,resource supply will eventually decrease and price up. While at the same time,kerosene fuel is increasing price and supply is not promising.

One of the important biofuel to replace is Charcoal Briquette. This product can be used in stove cooking,lightening house,warming and boilers. The production is applicable for small developers given the increasing need for cheap affordable fuel supply besides traditional kerosene. It will burn efficiently and release a lot energy.

Briquetting Presses Working principle:

Briquetting is a process that biomass is compressed under high pressure and high temperature. The machine uses a large screw to grind,compress and extrude the biomass into briquettes.
Powerful Wood Briquettes flames for cooking

The self bonding of biomass to form a briquette involves the thermo-plastic flow of the biomass. The natural lignin content in biomass is liberated under high pressure and temperature. Lignin serves as the glue in the briquetting process, binds the particles of wood together, thus binding,compressing the biomss to form into high density briquettes.
Wood Briquettes from wood

During this process, no binder need to be used. So the ouput briquette is a type of clean and green fuel that is ideal for use in furnaces, boilers and open fires.

Briquette Press machine-Portable
The usage of the bio-fuel carbon:
The bio-fuel carbon output by briquetting press is a utilization of regenerated waste energy, with the higher heat than other charcoals which is made of the similar materials, smoke-free, tasteless, non-toxic. The bio-fuel carbon maintains the cleanliness and hygiene, and is suitable for family heating and barbecuing. There is a huge need in the international market, for it is capable as the substitute for the superior coal or heavy oil to the Industrial steam boiler, or the industrial raw material for the further processing into the activated carbon, mosquito coils and explosives.

They need for alternatives besides traditional fuel will increase more and more in the future.However,it remains unexplored. There are many sources that can use to convert any biomass waste to Charcoal Briquette.

Saturday, May 9, 2009

Bluefire Ethanol Company.

Arnold Klann, president and CEO of BlueFire Ethanol.

There are more than 200 biofuel companies in the world today according to Bioenergy Canada. The growing interest,research,development ,market and awareness with global warming campaigns worldwide is setting new trends for the next generation fuel. Biofuel may not completely replace but will take a greater portion of the market and eventually but will do so eventually. In US along has 170 biofuel companies, their source of raw materials range from wood,sugar cane,soyabeans,plastics,garbage,algae,jatropha,canola etc.. into bioethanol,biodiesel,biogas,syn gas and other related by products.
The rising number of biofuel producers are rapidly increasing worldwide.The list below are some of the potential developers who will carry our fuel demand /supply into 22nd century and beyond.
The following cellulosic ethanol plants are now open or in the pre-planning stages in the United States (sources, IEA Task 39 Group, Biofuels Digest, Reuters:

company name, location, capacity in Mgy and feedstock respectively).

I had been visiting their site for information on what their dynamic this organization-Company is doing well by converting wood,garbage to ethanol using efficient low cost modern technology.The most interesting thing about this company is reviving centuries old conversion of cellulose/paper /wood into sugar then ethanol and used as fuel. This was stumbled upon by then chief engineer, Ed Matovich,while in an attempt to fall asleep one night where germans used the method during WW11. Off course bad situations has always lead to new developments, the indefinite fossil fuel has cuased not restarin but new opportunities .

"Sometimes, a groundbreaking technology develops in a whitewashed laboratory amid test tubes and Bunsen burners''
Other times, it takes a case of insomnia".

Such is the story of BlueFire Ethanol, a pioneering ethanol production company whose mission is to be“a world-class producer and supplier of renewable liquid fuels by the production of ethanol fromopportunistic sources of cellulose from garbage and green waste generated by municipal sources.”
Evidently, BlueFire is succeeding in its mission. In 2007, the company was one of only four ethanolplants nationwide to be chosen to receive federal grant funding as part of the U.S. Department ofEnergy’s focus on increasing the use of renewable and alternative fuels. For BlueFire’s second planned
U.S. biorefinery plant construction in Southern California, the Department of Energy awarded the company up to $40 million in federal funds , which BlueFire began drawing upon in 2008.But the story of this innovative company begins much earlier. The seeds of BlueFire Ethanol were, in fact, planted in 1989 with the vision of Chairman, President, and CEO Arnold R. Klann. In that year,Klann launched ARK Energy, a power plant construction and operation company that aimed to produce
and promote power plants under private investment. ARK quickly grew to enjoy a nationwide presence.Seeking to discover a positive use for the energy created by the power plants, the company beganresearching alternative ethanol development technologies.It wasn’t until ARK Energy’s then chief engineer, Ed Matovich, in an attempt to fall asleep one night,happened to be reading a World War II-era textbook that he knew he was onto something big. In the book, Matovich stumbled upon a cellulose-to-ethanol process that Germany had employed during both world wars. Away from ARK’s offices and in Matovich’s home, Klann and ARK’s researchers tested the decades-old formula using acid and paper. The goal was to confirm if they could successfully extract sugar through the process. Since sugar was already a known viable component in the production of ethanol, such a confirmation would prove that solid waste could, indeed, be used to produce ethanol. Klann and his colleagues were not disappointed. Thus was born Arkenol, the parent company of the technology that birthed BlueFire Ethanol.
The push for ethanol production for use as an alternative source of fuel was nothing new. Increased dependence on foreign oil had already incentivized the development of ethanol using traditional methods such as corn conversion. Yet, with a decreasing corn supply, the cost of production was slowly
eclipsing its subsequent value as fuel.

With the cellulose-to-ethanol breakthrough in Matovich’s home, Arkenol patented the only commercially viable system of transforming cellulose waste into usable ethanol. Today, BlueFire Ethanol holds the exclusive North American license to employ the technology. As a result, BlueFire is uniquely positioned to set the industry standard in converting waste materials – such as sorted municipal waste, wood waste, green waste, straws, switchgrass, and corn stover – into ethanol.
Headquartered in Irvine, California, BlueFire Ethanol is actively pursuing its vision of partnering directly with municipalities, landfill owners, and others to build fully-integrated plants at the sites of waste disposal. Like future projected facilities, the southern California plant recognized by the Department of Energy will be located directly on an existing landfill site, allowing BlueFire to convert wood waste andbsolid waste that would otherwise occupy valuable landfill space into usable ethanol.
Because the end product enters the fuel marketplace, the market for ethanol is literally as unlimited asthe number of auto drivers. Additionally, because ethanol is clean, healthy, and incurs no negative environmental impact, demand for it will only increase alongside enhanced attention to environmental
Under the leadership of a team of seasoned experts, most of whom have been closely involved in the cellulose-to-ethanol technology since its inception under the Arkenol banner, BlueFire is poised to continue pioneering this cutting edge ethanol production technology.

In the recent news,President Obama has also promised $786.5 million from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to be provided to advance biofuels research, development and commercialization by allocating funds for commercial biorefineries.These "biorefineries" will convert widely available, inexpensive, organic materials such as agricultural residues, high-content biomass crops, wood residues, and cellulose from MSW into ethanol. BlueFire intends to build a multinational company that leads the world in producing biobased transportation fuels. Its business will encompass development activities leading to the construction and long-term operation of production facilities while maintaining technological advantage and ownership of the process technology and all its improvements.

"It is great to see the administration bring all of these agencies together for the first time in an effort to address the challenges and opportunities for next-generation biofuels in America," stated Arnold Klann, president and CEO of BlueFire Ethanol. "The administration's support of biofuels technologies is a key step toward full-scale commercial production of cellulosic ethanol and a testament to President Obama's desire to promote energy independence."

For querries/information/business visit the site:

Wednesday, May 6, 2009

Coffee and Jatropha, PNG has another giant cash crop! Great potential.

(Above)Kongo Coffee,Coffe expoter, Chimbu province, PNG (Company logo)
(Kongo workers-left , coffee drying by sun-natural flavor preservative method)

Coffee: Coffee was once and weed in Africa hundred years back until someone was crazy to use it as drink.The crazy first man did not know that he has discovered a green gold. Up until now Coffee is money therefore cash crop. First coffee in PNG was somewhere grown in Asaroka secondary school,Goroka,EHP by Lutheran Missionaries. During my high school days were still there and we increase more planting.Coffee in PNG is a huge success and earns millions of Kina per year.
Many farms sprouted throughout highlands valleys, factories and man gain riches tremendously with coffee. There are too many success stories in this regard. Take for example, Kongo Coffee-interst individuals or group wanting best coffee can check this site. ( process and exports coffee with high class quality throughout the world. This nationally owned Rural based firm has very huge financial stories. It exports "AA" Grade (screen 19+) beans, high class quality-organic and original to overseas markets through East and Western world. Yearly production exceeds 7200 tons, it increasing with expansion.

Coffee tree once a no value has value in our society,communities,economics, politics and national wealth building. The plant has undergone great recognition from nothing to something. Once a weed now at the top of PNG cash crop development.

Change of time:

Today, as the world took great leap into space age (man will go to planet Mars before 2038, NASA will go to Mars by 2037) there are various major mind blogging changes.Various changes have taken less time to mushroom, with internet and high tech settle light communication system, knowledge is obtained fast and developments are computer aided. Population neared 6.9 billion, within a year or less will strike 7 billion who will race for oxygen,resources,materials,etc..for use and survival. While at the same time pollution will build up,natural balance of nature will be altered and new natural occurrences like change in wind and oceans movement will have devastating impacts on human activities. Traditional climatic conditions will have changed by degree, altitude change,week plant and animals will extinct ,new will sprout. Again man will devise its course of using resources and technologies to suit its new level of life.

On of this new change is fuel. More than 200 hundred years of fossil fuel usage has somewhat come to notice that man will not continue for another two hundred years of cheap fuel. The fact is man will make fuel now. The same kind of phenomena ''hunters did not continue, they reared the animals..and cultivate plants ''. Fossil fuel was hunted and served, up to now hunters returned with less and less. What to do...produced the fuel!


The increasing 1700 biofuels companies in the world are now targeting mass production of biofuels (biodiesel,bioethanol etc..).Biofuels are derived from vaious organic matter using technologies like you have machines in your factories to process coffee,flour,meats etc...
With the increasing awareness of climate change and change of politics to redirect green house emissions and governments controls, one has to see that biofuel usage will increase while fossil fuel depletes. More controls will has high tax on fossil fuel making usage and developments of biofuels mandatory.

What possible crop can become coffee-like cash crop-''nothing to something''
for PNG. According to recent researches is Jatropha plant.Its agricultural facts indicated this plant is highly suitable to all soil types and highly adaptive. If taken, it will run side by side with coffee, two very important cash crop for PNG communities. Financial benefits cannot be overemphasized here-it is huge, market is wide and its renewable , a tree will serve you 40 years 3-4 times a year 13 kilogram per year, 40 years before turning to firewood.

Jatropha beans ready for extraction.
-Almost like coffee bean!

Let take for example, if Kongo coffee claims to export 2700 tons of Coffee per year if that is jatropha would account for 2,700 000 liters of biofuels, PNG local fuel demand would meet more than half of PNG fuel need if the total fuel consumption in PNG remained same from 2007. Unfortunately increased by margins. Approximately K6 750 000.00 can be fetched as revenue at K2.5 per liter. The demand will remain high and steadily increased as more emphasized is put on fossil fuel reduction. Market demand for the product will increase exponentially, investors will fetch more money with their valued investments.
Accordingly, this plant value will follow closely to Coffee, farmers will use unused infertile land for jatropha while proper land for coffee and like manner will sustainable alleviate rural poverty and improve living style.

Apart from biodiesel form jatropha there are other minor products from the same raw materials, the more than 50 % protein can be easily extracted and converted to adhesive like glue..formulate animal feed,while remaining cake is formulated to fertilizer by adjusting NPK content which are high. With jatropha, no waste is produced-one raw material fission into valuable products all high in price local and international.

Apart from other potential source such as algae for biofuels, jatropha remains potential for PNG economy. Coffee was not understood of its potential until it fetch huge money, jatropha will follow exactly.

PNG local investors must fix their binoculars and look into the future and design and design new venture.

Tuesday, May 5, 2009

How far has PNG contributed Green house Gases for Climate Change?

According to your report dated 5ht May,The National.
I have a question that needs answer. The climate change campaign and alarm in PNG as reported by daily papers. From global point of view, its is reasonable that every country must go green by limiting green house gases. While PNG is a developing country, just how much has country emitted green house gases, what is quantity of carbon dioxide from 3 billion tons per year from around the world? Which industries are responsible for the contribution? If New Zealand contributes 0.2% while Australia accounts for 1.3% of global carbon emissions,how much does PNG contribute?
If our current sciences and politics of PNG fail to give exact and precise answers. I do not see a good reason why we have to be too vibrant on issues that may overlook rural and urban development. In the past 40 years PNG with less factories ,manufacturing has contributed in fact less than 0.001% to make a difference in the atmospheric gaseous composition. Even up to now no major industry is producing the green house gas. With the lack of adequate information and evidence, its still questionable why tax payers money can be used to accommodate office,conference and meetings that will sum into millions at the end of the year.
Scientifically speaking, Carbon dioxide remained at 0.03% atmospheric gaseous composition ever since stone age up till now, but why man is so afraid? Funny conclusion like carbon dioxide cuases temperature increase is still inconclusive. Carbon dioxide is non conductive,does not contain heat or energy.That means it does not have any space to accommodate heat in its molecule make up even though it can at very high pressure harsh environment. For heat from sun to be absorbed in the carbon dioxide and cause global temperature to increase changing climates is too remote.Then why are some planets with higher carbon dioxide have ice cool temperature. This conclusion is not reasonable.

Current politicians fail to understand where confuse science lead to promote own ideas not scientifically proven. Many scientist prove there are controvery in global warming campaigns. Basically carbon dioxide is soluble in water,the big ocean absorbs most of the carbon dioxide.By law of equilibrium, carbon dioxide does not stays in the atmosphere forever,it travels to lower concentrations such as the oceans and millions of tons are dissolved per year keeping the 0.035 stable in the Atmosphere enough for plants. The recent decrease in oceanic pH by less than one point is due to dissolving carbon dioxide. This is due to the formation of weak carbonic acid on reacting with water. Carbon dioxide is very important for plant in the see which in turn look after fish and all life forms-energy transfer chain.
The recent rise in sea level, most of the part is mostly due to change in oceanic current flow. This change counts to centuries to fully change. What land mass is in its path will experience rise in sea level.
The main argument here is , I do not know the basic reasons why PNG has to create offices and allocate millions of kina that should put into good use for the development of PNG. However, it is advisable to encourage greening but too at the cost of tax payers money. We need money for mega highways,sustainable developments,infrastructure development and poverty alleviation in PNG.

Sunday, May 3, 2009

PNG Rural bioenergy -sustainable enterprises with biomethane opportunities.

This giant carrier and others carry fuel from producers to consumers and carry hundreds of millions of barrels per load

The world has evolved fast from stone age to space age, by 2040 and beyond man will have been on Mars some 401,326,431 km away that would take fastest jet 4700 days with speed of 3529.56 km/h.Space settle light,communication,computer internet ,knowledge and technology are parallel interdependent parameters that build 1000 times better than Babel tower technology.The human world population is growing at 1.25% per year.That is 77 million per year that is about 6.4 million per month. The current world population is 6.9 billion according to the US Bureau of the Census.

Every one of this individual consume and use resources-need. The demand for energy ,space,resource have been exponentially increasing while pollution was parallel.Interwowen economics which has evolved from barta system exchange (trade one for another item-local PNG and abroad primitive economics) has linked up to what now is called export and import. One region depends on another for fuel/energy/resources and the other viceversa.
The power driving the mechanism to life and keeping all these working system is fuel. The hundreds of carrier oil tankers-island like, passing out of resources rich Africa,oil regions to the West and East with giant quantities of oil for fuel.PNG will soon join to supply. The continues production and supply to meet increasing demand has about meet short supply deadlines. Headlines around the world indicated this.
The increasing populous rushed into converting biomass to energy with advance high tech. Bioenergy developments has since been formulated and ,new and diverse ways are developed and opportunities and discoveries seem optimistic.

Development and civilization is energy dependent. However, most of the developing countries are still using low tech to shifting cultivation-poor near bush age approach to development.This is due to one very important factor....Power !
Papua New Guinea with high rainfall,many river system is using Hydro for energy supply.But is very expensive and does not cover more than 8-10Km out of the towns and cities.This leaves 90% of the population in darkness and so very little industrialization or none are done.The little rural base enterprises like coffee farms and and its primary processing are done using fossil fuel.Due to increasing or indefinite unstable future of fuel prices, these small rural base businesses are doom to fail if government cannot subsidies fuel or develop alternative internal fuel supply within the country.
Sustainable development in the rural country in PNG is none existent.People are poor educated on technical aspects,low or no technology, those educated are unable because government cannot utilize them due to poor governing.
However, there are few sustainable business that can bypass PNG power and government notice.The approach is to develop rural base bioenergy technology that can earn life.

Methane is very efficient, this flame from hydrated methane burning.

One of the opportunities for rural energy independent enterprise is livestock & meat processing and supply. According to my researches which cannot reveal the gold nugget part but to initiate development for potential interest group and individual is to engage in Biomethane production from confined livestock.The major goal is cost reduction and energy is important.
The two factors can be solved simultaneously. Cost reduction can be archived when home base livestock feed is formulated at very low cost.Secondly,waste the livestock can be used to produce biomethane. Biomethane is 5-7 times efficient than petrol fuel. This means if you inject biomethane into your car with efficiency of carry you ten kilometers per hour, it can go more than 15 kilometer with biomethane!
With a consistent number of animal there will be consistent supply of fuel from their feces to meet all energy cost.Surplus can be sold locally.Rural freez, house and other uses can be subsidize as well as lighting the livestock at night.
Livestock feed can be manufactured using home protein sources to meet your hungry livestock who will give energy in return. In both ways, the enterprise become independent totally from government monopoly or foreigner. Off course tax free business opportunity for rural communities.There is no 'push force' on the people to camp and settle even around sewerage areas in towns and cities when money and life can be generated in the rural.
The benefits are that the enterprise can sell their products at cheap price because of very low operational cost therefore high profit.The products can highly supplement rural diet by high nutritious proteins. Creates employments and increase living or lifestyle, alleviate poverty.
Indirectly, the major protein/meat suppliers may reduce their product prices directly increasing and improving better supply of proteins/nutrition to population at large. The rural enterprise will not bother about purchasing feeds,pay power bills or water.This full package opportunities are available for rural PNG. With more and more emphasis on replacing fossil fuel with biofuels worldwide,bioenergy development is highly regarded and encourage and this is the trend adopted all over the world due to unpredictable climate change due to 3 billion tons of carbon dioxide emission per year.
My current researches indicated that biomethane for medium rural business with livestock is very feasible. Briefly, 50 kg digested may give enough fuel to run a family car for more than two months using biomethane. Because, PNG was tamed on using liquid fossil fuel such as diesel and petrol, we are blinded of the opportunities to go sustainable and fall short of potential opportunities. From this calculation, one can estimate how much a livestock waste can be produce by how many per head, than distribute the power use and estimate the magnitude of your operation.

PNG rural communities cannot be blamed for being underdeveloped. The point is responsible heads of departments/public servants are not dissipating their duty,service and their duties to the people.If Agricultural evidence in Kuk valley indicated agriculture on earth to be the first, I am highly optimistic we can adequately excel in agricultural development.

Poor planning led the rural communities to get-get compo for any development from government or foreign investments. The current acts of villagers at the airport(Jacksons-POM) for gas project is an example. The people at the end of the day will remain 'stupid'-lacking basic knowledge and technology for survival after the gas is evaporated soon. PNG must move away from consumer get-get attitude to the level call 'know how'. With know how, we can survive, with get-get we remain clients to others and fight over leaf overs for life.
Natural gas,fossil fuel,gold,copper will finish.Sustainable bioenergy/biofuel will remain for as long as the last fuel is need for the end. Most newspapers of the day are full of resources exploitation/investments etc..but if one sit down carefully and analyze, more than 80% of your resources belongs to others but you have the stamp of ownership without owning!
With bioenergy/biofuel, you create,own, hire and fire, 100 % owned!